Thoughtful and thorough lighting is necessary for safe and easy navigation of pathways at night or in dark areas (under cover of trees, stairwells etc). The objective should be to minimize shadows. Placement of light sources is important for people to be able to maintain focus on where they are going. Positioning is crucial to help users avoid looking directly toward a light source, as that can cause glare and become a barrier.
Lighting low to the ground/floor, or just above the ground/floor, can create cues about the direction to follow. Use low lights to help define the pathway, but don’t make these lights a focal point.